valley-forge-1777.jpg


After losing battles to General William Howe's forces Washington was forced to retreat from Philadelphia in the fall of 1777. With the cold winter approaching, Washington chose an area to retreat about 20 miles north west of Philadelphia. This area was called Valley Forge. Valley Forge was protected with it's higher elevation and it's proximity to the Schuykill River made it an ideal location for encampment. Here in Valley Forge amy engineers constructed over 2000 log cabin huts where the soldiers were able to regroup and endure the harsh winter. Congress had not provided any money for supplies so troops were without nutritious food or warm winter clothes. They ate rice and vinegar on that Christmas Eve and wrapped their frost bitten, bleeding feet with rags.

They survived on scarce rations until Brigadier General Anthony Wayne was sent to in February 1778 to gather food cattle, and horses for the men. Later that month, commissioned by Benjamin Franklin, and endorsed by Washington former Prussian General Baron Freidrich Wilhelm von Steuben arrived at Valley Forge. Von Steuben who spoke no English, through interpreters, trained the continental soldiers. He imparted his tactical expertise in drill and maneuver as well as arms to smaller groups who would then train other units until all soldiers were highly trained and better prepared for future battles. This training proved vitaly important in future battles, as the newly trained soldiers went on to victory.map3.jpg

65234-004-D00EE604.jpggeorge-washington-valley-forge-resized-600.jpg.png







george-washington-portrait.jpg
George Washington, titled “Father of His Country” was commander of the Continental Army, president of the Constitutional Convention, and the first American president. He was born in Pope’s Creek in Westmoreland County, Virginia on his father, Augustine Washington’s plantation on February 22, 1732. He married a wealthy widow named Martha Dandridge Custis and was able to go to the highest level of the planter society in Virginia. Washington was not completely educated past the age of fifteen but by seventeen was a surveyor on the Virginia frontier. The very beginning of Washington’s military career was in 1753 when France and Great Britain were fighting to rule the Ohio Territory. Washington offered to take on a dangerous mission to send a message from Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia demanding that the French leave the area. Upon returning he was lucky to have survived after he fell from a raft into the freezing, icy Allegheny River. Washington in 1755 when on a final mission with British Major General Edward Braddock to force the French out of Ohio Valley. Braddock and most officers were killed in a surprise attack by the French and Indian forces. Washington was brave and saved the remaining British troops which began his hero label and made him in charge of all Virginia forces. Later he resigned in 1778 to marry Martha back home in Mount Vernon.
Washington loved to farm it was his special talent and passion. He transitioned the cash crop tobacco to wheat in 1760. He observed crop rotation and livestock breeding. He eventually created a trading barn that was 16-sided, opened a gristmill, distillery and commercial fishery.
George Washington deeply involved in colonial politics and was eventually elected to Virginia’s House of Burgesses. He soon grew indignant of The British economic forces in his personal finance and the colonies. As one of the representatives in the Continental Congress he traveled to Philadelphia in 1774. Washington was elected commander in chief of the Continental Army when the Revolutionary War broke out in 1775 against Great Britain. The British were occupying Boston after battles were fought at Lexington and Concord when he had arrived in Massachusetts. Americans were outnumbered and they were very low on supplies and arms.
The main events, successful and not of his incumbency as the commandeer consisted of the British takeover of New York which was made up for by Washington’s crossing the Delaware on Christmas night winning the Battle of Trenton in 1776. At the Battle of Brandywine, which was a counterattack to defend Philadelphia, had fallen flat. The Battle of Monmouth in New jersey was a standoff. In 1781, the Americans had successfully attacked the British in Yorktown. This was the end of the Revolutionary War.
Washington was later elected our first president of the nation in 1789 when the Articles of Confederation began to weaken.

Ralf-Earl-xx-Baron-von-Steuben-1876-xx-New-York-State-Historical-Association.jpg

Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben was born on September 17,1730 in the town of Magdeburg, Germany. His Father, Lt. Baron Wilhelm von Steuben was a Royal Prussian Engineer and his mothers name was Elizabeth von Jagvodin.

In 1746 he was entered into the Prussian Army as lance-corporal. Friedrich Wilhelm himself became a general staff officer and aide-de-cap to Fredrick The Great in 1761. This was during the Seven Years’ War where he was wounded on the Russian front in battle. He secured the post of Grand Marshall in the court of the Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen after the demobilization in 1763.

By the Margrave of Baden in 1769 he was given the award Order of Fidelity. Count de St. Germain, French War Minister introduced von Steuben to American ambassador, Benjamin Franklin. Franklin organized his passage to the United States. In Deceber of 1777 von Steuben offered his assistance as volunteer to the American Congress.

Von Steuben is well remembered for his famous organization and training of the Continental troops at Valley Forge. On May 5, 1778 he was commissioned Inspector-General. In March on 1784 he retired from the military.

He died on November 28,1794 at Remsen, Oneida County, New York.




Sorces:
http://www.cr.nps.gov/logcabin/html/vf.html
http://www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/washington-leads-troops-into-winter-quarters-at-valley-forge
http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars16011800/p/valleyforge.htm
http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/battles/valley-forge.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valley_Forge
http://valleyforgemusterroll.org/encampment.asp
http://www.ushistory.org/march/phila/valleyforge.htm
http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_II/baronvon_hb.html
http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/Our_Country_vol_2/georgewas_bag.html