Battle of Germantown
Painting of Germantown:
GermantownPainting.jpg

Background Information:

Date and Place of Occurrence:
Date: October 4th 1777
Place: Germantown, Pennsylvania (Just North of Philadelphia)
Combatants and Generals and Sizes:
Combatants: American Continental Army vs. British and Hessians
Generals: General George Washington vs Major General Howe
Size of Forces: 11,000 Americans against 8,000 British and Hessians
Germantown: What Actually Happened:
On October 2nd, Washington conceived a bold plan of attack on Howe's 9,000 troop garrison stationed in Germantown.
It called for the simultaneous advance of four different units of troops moving by night. Washington planned a pre-dawn
attack on Germantown. The morning started well for the Americans who had the British retreating. But Washington's plan
went astray when one of his four columns lost its bearings in a dense fog and thick smoke. Others columns failed to coordinate effectively.
Nearly 12,000 Continental troops were marshaled for the attack, yet 120 British infantrymen proved unbeatable as they barricaded
themselves inside the thick stone walls of Cliveden. Valuable time was lost while the Americans under Henry Knox bombarded the house.
Those inside did not surrender because they feared that Anthony Wayne's men, still furious over the Paoli Massacre, would kill them anyway.
In the end, bad luck and poor timing forced Washington to retreat to Whitemarsh with the British in pursuit. The Battle was an American defeat
but it served to boost morale and self-confidence. They believed the defeat was the result of bad luck, not poor tactics. After the Battle, local
teenagers helped to bury the dead in mass graves. More than 150 American soldiers were killed about half of them lie on the grounds of
Cliveden 70 British were killed also. Hundreds more on both sides were wounded. The Battle left indelible scars on the community.
Important Figures:
George Washington: The dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory
over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the
writing of the Constitution in 1787. The unanimous choice to serve as the first President of the United States (1789–1797), Washington presided
over the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that stayed neutral in the wars raging in Europe, suppressed rebellion and won
acceptance among Americans of all types. His leadership style established many forms and rituals of government that have been used since, such
as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address. Washington is universally regarded as the "Father of his Country".
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General Howe: was a British army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence.
Howe was one of three brothers who enjoyed distinguished military careers. Howe was sent to North America in March 1775, arriving in May after the
Revolutionary War broke out. After leading British troops to a costly victory in the ­­Battle of Bunker Hill, Howe took command of all British forces in
America from Thomas Gage in September of that year. Howe's record in North America was marked by the successful capture of both New York City
and Philadelphia. However, poor British campaign planning for 1777 contributed to the failure of John Burgoyne's Saratoga campaign, which played
a major role in the entry of France into the war. Howe's role in developing those plans, and the degree to which he was responsible for British failures
that year (despite his personal success at Philadelphia) have been a subject of contemporary and historic debate.
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Battle of Germantown Map:
map.jpg
History of Germantown



1)Battle of Germantown - Wikipedia
2)Battle of Germantown - britishbattles.com
3)Battle of Germantown - USHistory.org
4)Battle of Germantown - Revolutionary Germantown
5)Battle of Germatown - pa.gov
6)Battle of Germantown - theamericanrevolution.org
7)Battle of Germantown - About.com
8)Battle of Germantown - PublicBookshelf
9)Battle of Germantown - Thinkquest.com
10)Battle of Germantown - justinalee.com
11)General Howe
12)George Washington